By Donald Hay [see CJ H Wright, Old Testament Ethics for the People of God, IVP 2004 Chapters 3 and 4]
A. The Earth: divine gift and divine ownership in the OT (Psalm 24: 1, Psalm 115: 16)
God’s earth: divine ownership (Deuteronomy 10: 14)
The goodness of creation: Genesis 1, 2
Creation is distinct from, but dependent upon, God: Genesis 1: 1, Psalm 33: 6-9, Psalm 65: 9-13.
Creation de-divinized (compare Psalm 19: 1-6)
Creation exists to the glory and praise of God: Psalms 145: 10, 21, 150: 6
- Our earth: divine gift and human responsibility (Psalm 115: 16)
Earth as the place of human habitation for all God’s creatures (Psalm 104)
Humanity created from the ground but in ‘the image of God’: Genesis 1, 2
Subdue and rule: Genesis 1: 26, 28
‘.. to work (the garden) and take care of it.’ (Genesis 2: 15), naming the animals (Genesis 2: 19-20)
The model of servant-kingship (shepherd): Psalm 95: 1-7
Human priority: image of God, authority over creation (Psalm 8: 5, 6), sanctity of human life (Genesis 9: 4-6)
God’s rest as the climax of creation (Genesis 2: 2,3), leading to rest for humankind (Exodus 20: 8-11)
Cursed earth: human sin and the natural order
The Fall and the natural order: Genesis 3
The cosmic covenant: Genesis 9
New creation: the natural order and eschatology
Redemption in OT involved the Land (Psalm 85: 1, 12)
Creation and redemption: the renewal of nature (Jeremiah 31: 12, Ezekiel 47: 1-12, Isaiah 49: 8-33)
Eschatology: redemption including all creation: Isaiah 65: 17-25 (compare Romans 8: 18-25, Colossians 1: 15-20, Revelation 21: 1-4).
B. The Land in the story of Israel
The Land and the covenant promise
The covenant with Abraham: Genesis 12: 7, 15: 7, 18-21
The promised Land: Deuteronomy 8: 1-20
Settlement of the Land: Joshua, Judges, Samuel – David’s kingdom
The Land as divine gift
Land as God’s gracious gift: Deuteronomy 7: 7-8, 8: 17-18
God’s dependability – the promise of fruitfulness: Deuteronomy 26: 5-10
Proof of relationship between God and Israel: Deuteronomy 4: 21, 28
Land gift tradition – division of the Land: Numbers 26, 34, Joshua 13-19, 1 Kings 21
Limits on, and prophetic anger at, accumulation of land: Deuteronomy 19: 14, Micah 2: 1-2, Isaiah 5: 8
The year of Jubilee: Leviticus 25: 8-28
The Land under divine ownership
Land as YHWH’s land: Leviticus 25: 23
Land as a grant under covenant: Deuteronomy
to God: tithes and firstfruits (Deuteronomy 14: 22-29, 26: 1-15)
to family: the Jubilee (Leviticus 25: 8-24)
to neighbour: gleaning rights (Deuteronomy 24: 19-22), triennial tithe (Deuteronomy 14: 28-29)
to land: sabbatical for the land (Leviticus 25: 1-7), animals (Deuteronomy 22: 1-4, 25: 4)
The Land as an indicator of the covenant between God and his people
Trusting God or trusting the Baals: the blessings of obedience (Exodus 3: 8, Deuteronomy 4: 1-21, 28: 1-14).
Laws concerning the Land: Leviticus 25: 18-22, Deuteronomy 24: 19-22
Land and people: the monarchy, land, and economic life
Disobedience and exile: Deuteronomy 28: 58, 63-65
The promise of restoration after exile: Jeremiah 31: 1-14, 23-28.
C. The Land in the NT
C J H Wright comments: ‘In the New Testament, land ceases to have any covenantal significance. Hebrews sums up all the issues that Christ carries over from the Old Testament, that is, we have a High Priest (Jesus Christ), an altar (Hebrews 13: 10), access to the Holy Place (Hebrews 10: 19), a kingdom (Hebrews 12: 28) etc.. The only thing we do not have is an earthly territorial city (Hebrews 13: 14)’.
One suggestion is that just as the NT kingdom of God is open to all peoples, so the gift of land is the whole earth for all humankind, as implied in the creation narratives of Genesis 1-3. Eschatologically, all creation is to be renewed: Isaiah 65: 17-25, Romans 8: 18-25, Colossians 1: 15-20, Revelation 21: 1-4.
D. T=> DSP
[Suggested DSPs in italics, with explanation following]
- The natural order is God’s good creation: it is abundant and fruitful. This is evident from the creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2, and from various passages in the Psalms listed above. The pattern of creation survives despite the Fall, notably in the promise to Noah (Genesis 8: 22). It will itself be redeemed eschatologically (see, for example, the prophetic literature of the Old Testament, and New Testament passages such as Romans 8: 18-25).
- The natural order is God’s gift to humankind, but it remains his not ours. This is most starkly stated in Leviticus 25: 23, where the Lord tells the people, ‘The land is mine and you are but aliens and tenants’. This is the basis of the covenant between Yahweh and the people in respect of the Land. It is to be acknowledged by tithes and first fruits – thanking God for his goodness in giving us the created order.
- Humankind, created in the image of God, is given ‘dominion’ to subdue and rule the earth, to be fruitful and multiply: but we are also required to care for the natural order (environment), not destroy it. ‘Dominion’ is defined in Genesis 2 as work and care for the garden, and naming (that is, understanding) the animals; and this responsibility is renewed after the Fall (see Genesis 9). The dominion language suggests that humankind is God’s vice-regent (that is, rules in God’s place, with his authority). The OT model is that of the servant king, who is idealised as a shepherd. The shepherd metaphor, with its strong overtones of care, is better than the widely used ‘stewardship’ model, which could suggest a more exploitative relationship with the natural order. The natural order is given for our use, not our exploitation, since it remains as God’s possession. Adam is required to ‘care for’ the garden. The Israelites were required to give ‘rest’ to the land every seven years, and animals were to be well treated.
- The purpose of working with God’s gift of the natural order is to provide for human flourishing – food, clothing, shelter, human interaction – in which everyone should have a share. Humankind is enjoined to be fruitful and multiply, to fill the earth and subdue it. After the Fall, work becomes toil, but its purpose remains the same. The rules for gleaning, provision for the Levites, and the triennial tithe make it clear that these goods should be shared across the community.
- Access to natural resources should be available to all and accumulation should be prevented. The basis for ‘property rights’ in the natural order is God’s gift. The initial allocation of the Land achieved equality across Israelite clans and tribes (see section B.2 above: ‘The land as divine gift), and land could not be sold in perpetuity. If an Israelite family lost its land then it should be redeemed for them as soon as possible. The prophets condemned the tendency for the rulers and the powerful to accumulate land for their own wealth.
- Economic analysis focusses on the issue of ‘scarcity’ which appears to contradict the description of the natural order as ‘abundant’ in the first DSP above. There are two related ways of reconciling these viewpoints. The first is to identify scarcity as the result of human sinfulness, though it is not clear that this is explicit anywhere in the biblical text (except perhaps in the context of the judgement on Israel for their disobedience). The second is to note that natural resources may indeed be abundant in regard to human needs but not in regard to wants which are often (because of human sin) literally unlimited, giving rise to the problem of scarcity.
- These suggested DSP do not tackle the issue of forms of land ownership. In the OT rules for the Land, land could not be sold in perpetuity, but only leased until the Jubilee, the price reflecting the number of years until that date (Leviticus 25). At the Jubilee it is to be returned to its original family owners. It is not clear how to reflect this rule in DSP for modern economies where the concept of ‘original ownership’ does not hold.
[Donald Hay, April 2014]